Ovarian cysts are fluid filled sacs, of many alternative types, that occur on the surface of the ovaries, or on the inside of the ovary. Their cause isn’t really known, but the commonest relate to the function of the ovary.
During ovulation an egg forms and, if not fertilized, dissolves after a few days. When something goes awry, familial, immunity mechanism related, or an unknown cause, and the assimilation process is halted, a cyst forms. Either the ovum, the egg, remains and the sac fills with fluid, or after the ovum has been expelled or soaked up, the follicular sac remains and fills with fluid. These 2 are factors behind functional cysts.
During ovulation, occuring halfway between the menstrual cycle, is when symptoms of an ovarian cysts most often manifest themselves as sharpened pains, low back trouble and as generalized intestinal discomfort. These often aren’t serious and often vanish in few days or a week or so. If consistent discomfort each month, definitely an obstetrician should be consulted. Ovarian cysts aren’t cancerous, nor do they routinely progress into cancer.
Other kinds of ovarian cysts are polycystic cysts, meaning there are many small cysts in the ovaries, and most likely some place else in the body. This condition is know as poly cystic ovary syndrome ( PCOS ). It happens when the cysts remain closed after the egg forms and fills with fluid.
Cysts that form on the surface of the ovaries are typically endometrial in origin. The endothelium, the liner of the uterus that sloughs off during menstruation, is the participatory element. Part of this tissue somehow attaches itself to ovaries — and other abdominal areas and grow into unpleasant fluid contained cysts.
Other reasons for ovarian cysts, although less common than follicular or straightforward ovarian cysts, are surface cysts that form from the tissue cells of the ovary. Not always fluid filled but often these adenomas fill with fluids, thus becoming cystadenomas.
Dermoid cysts might also form but they are rare. These are cysts that contain tissue that contain skin, hair, and other cellular tissue. These too can form in other bits of the body.
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